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Full text of "Rapid Population Growth Consequences And Policy Implications"

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tion level is reached with respect to the per capita consump-i item, population growth of course becomes the dominant >es changes in the aggregate volume of the associated waste-es. Passenger cars per head, for instance, in some countries are ;uration levels.
elasticity of demand for living space, travel, space-intensive , perhaps, solitude and unspoiled nature is demonstrably high on of present trends in income and population is bound to asingly felt scarcities of "nature" and "space," qualities for ;rior substitutes will be available.
tional money measures of income will tend to be considered elevant as a reflection of welfare in a broader sense. The grow-
of the organizational setup required to ensure the high income wing population imposes psychic, social, and political costs-aspect to privacy, a sense of individual identity, aesthetic satis-om from control and excessive regulation, and other related
that the required growing complexity of the economy and of nization in general will tend to render the system increasingly adden technological and organizational breakdowns and/or will > of insuring against such breakdowns increasingly heavy. It is .t uncertainty concerning the long-term implications of the idjustments needed to accommodate a growing population at jvels will continue to be present, and the likelihood that such ill cause unforeseen, irreversible, and undesired consequences, iological environment, will become increasingly stronger. ' necessary to underscore that the points outlined above are e. Little systematic thought has thus far been devoted to ex-jntual consequences in countries that have effectively escaped . of the Malthusian trap of long-term economic growth while is at a level that results in positive rates of demographic insult, the economic prospects for the technologically advanced the share of population growth in shaping those prospects, :iently understood.
ing section reviewed the arguments concerning the net eco-at would be expected to result from a decline of fertility. It hese arguments that if a decline does take place spontaneously, should be welcomed on economic grounds. It is now legitimate his proposition and make an economic case for an active policy icing such a decline? Only too often the answer is taken as to reappear, ironically, in the reverse form of the classical resource problems, i.e., as problems of disposing of a wide range of waste by-products. The pollution of the environment that results, and the costs of coping with such pollution, tend to increase more than proportionately and often discontinuously as the volume of discharge increases. The point is not that population growth is alone or even primarily responsible for the appearance of such problems but merely that the size of a problem for any given income level tends to be at least proportionate to population size. Once a